Year : 2018  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 352-357

Iron-deficiency anemia as a risk factor for acute lower respiratory tract infections in children younger than 5 years

1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
2 Department of Chest, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
3 Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Osama I Mohammad
Department of Chest, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Qualuibiya
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ejb.ejb_67_17

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Background Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) is an important cause of morbidity in the developed world and both morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Moreover, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major health problem in children. Aim The aim was to evaluate IDA as a risk factor for ALRTIs in children. Participants and methods A total of 200 children were enrolled in this study, and they were divided into two groups: group I included 100 children with lower respiratory tract infections and group II included 100 apparently healthy children matched for age and sex as a control group. All enrolled children were subjected to history taking with stress on recurrent chest infection, clinical examination, and chest radiographs. Complete blood counting was done with measures of serum iron, serum ferritin levels, and total iron-binding capacity. Results Anemia was found in 74% of cases and 38% of controls. IDA was present in 60% of cases and 24% of controls. There was a statistically significant increased incidence of anemia [odds ratio (OR) was 4.64] and presence of IDA (OR was 4.75) in group I compared with group II. Regarding recurrent chest infections, there was a statistically significant increased incidence in children with anemia compared with those without anemia (OR was 27.60) and between non-IDA and IDA, as it was significantly higher in children with IDA (OR was 10.26). Conclusion Children with IDA were found to be four times more susceptible to ALRTI and ten times more susceptible to recurrent chest infections when compared with children without anemia.

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