Year : 2018  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 340-345

Role of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in patients with hematological malignancies

1 Pulmonology Department, Cairo University, Egypt
2 Oncology Department, Cairo University, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Mohamed Said Ismail
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Cairo University Hospitals, Kasralainy Street, 11562
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ejb.ejb_107_17

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Rationale Patients with hematological malignancies are a special challenge to health care providers as they undergo a wide variety of immune-suppressive therapies. Both disease and therapy can cause complications. The lungs may be directly injured through infectious or toxic insults. Early identification of the nature of infiltrates will result in better outcome in the management of these patients. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) may be a good tool for indentifying the infiltrate nature by using different diagnostic techniques like transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients and methods This study was performed over 6 months, in Kasr Al-Aini Hospital, Cairo University. It included 30 patients with hematological malignancies presenting with pulmonary infiltrates confirmed by computed tomography of the chest. All patients underwent history taking, clinical examination, and investigations included complete blood count and coagulation profile, BAL for culture and sensitivity, cytology examination, and TBLB. Results Overall diagnostic yield of FOB was 73.3% in this study. The diagnostic yield of FOB was higher for infectious (43.3%) than both noninfectious (20%) and mixed (10%) etiologies. The combined diagnostic yield of BAL for bacteriological examination and TBLB was higher than that of BAL for cytology examination. Bacteriological examination revealed a predominance for gram-negative bacteria in 62.5% of total culture and sensitivity. Conclusion This study supports the role of FOB as the initial procedure of choice for identifying the nature of pulmonary infiltrates in patients with hematological malignancies. Because our results suggest that BAL and TBLB are complementary, we recommend performing TBLB whenever it is deemed safe. On the contrary, cytological examination of BAL fluids was not helpful in reaching a final diagnosis.

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